GLOSSARY    N - Z



Nainsnook:  A fine, soft, plain-woven cotton made in various weights.  It is heavier than lawn and often resembles cambric.
Nainsnook was popular during the 19th century for lingerie and undergarments.

Nickerson, Camilla: Camilla Nickerson is an extrodinary talent in the field of fashion who began her career at age eighteen in
the offices of British
VOGUE.  Subsequently she held positions at Italian Vogue, The Face and Harper's & Queen.  Moving to
New York in the late 1980s, Nickerson became senior fashion editor of U.S. Vogue.  Nickerson spent spent nearly 13 years at
American Vogue before becoming senior fashion editor at W.  She is well known for her extensive knowledge of and exquisite
taste in fashion.  This is matched by her deep understanding of art and photography.  Her experimental nature has drawn out
some of most memorable and enduring fashion photography shot by Steven Meisel, Mario Serrenti, Inez van Lamsweerde,
Vinoodh Matadin and Steven Klein.  Nickerson has styled campaigns for Yves Saint Laurent and Michael Kors.  She has been
significant in shaping the collections of Narcisco Rodriguez.  In 1998, she co-authored the groundbreaking book, Fashion with
her husband Neville Wakefield.

Pad-Out:  To build up parts of a garment with fabric or wadding so it becomes fuller.

Pallet:  The choosing of colors for a fashion range.  It is one of the earliest decisions made by a designer when developing a
collection.  The color choices will dictate the mood or seasonal 'tune' of a collection and help differentiate it from its
predecessor.  

Paris Fashion Week: Now twelve days in length, some store buyers and journalists see up to ten shows a day.  They are
bused from one venue to the next starting at dawn until midnight.  The press keeps a watch on the pecking order and seating
positions of favoured celebrities and buyers.  There are always dozens of after-show parties attended.  

Pattern-hook:  The method by which commercial patterns are usually stored.  Many designers prefer the hanging method
rather than folding so that patterns stay in their original condition.

Pattern Maker: (or pattern cutter) drafts the shapes and sizes of a garment’s pieces.  This may be done manually with paper
and measuring tools or by using an Auto Cad computer software program.  Another method is to drape fabric directly onto a
dress form.  The final pattern pieces can be used to produce the intended garment design and required size.  Formal training
is usually required to work as a pattern maker.

Peplum:  A flared lower edge of a jacket, usually attached at athe waistline.

Petersham:  Heavy ribbon used to finish and reinforce a waist on skirts and trousers.

Picot:  A decorative, serratd edge finishing stitch on knitwear and lingerie.

Preppie: A Style popular in North America in the late 1970s which imitated the dress of the IVY LEAGUE student.  Essential
pieces of the preppie look were the plaid skirt, Blazer, tweeds and Shetland or Fair Isle sweaters.  For women, pastel shades
and the combination of red, white and blue were particularly fashionable.  For men, the dress was corduroy trousers, madras
trousers or shirts, and seersucker jackets.

Psychedelic: Clothing which originated in the 1960s with the hippie movement.  They were made of irregular patterns,
brilliant colours and luminous cloth.

Revers, Revere: A wide LAPEL on a jacket or coat.  The turned back front edge of a fabric at the neck or cuff.

Repetition:  The use of design elements, details or trimmings more than once in a garment.  A certain feature can be
repeated regularly or irregularly as a multiple effect and can be used to unify a design.  Evenly spaced buttons, pleats or
pannels of a skirt or a feature of the fabric itself are exapmples of repetition.

Rhythm:  Can create a powerful effect in a garment and may be achieved through repetition of features or through motifs in
printed fabrics.   

Roll line:  The line along which a collar or lapel folds back.

Rouleau:  A narrow strip of fabric turned through to make rounded straps or loops.

Roitfeld, Carine:  Born September 19, 1954 in Paris, France, Carine Roitfeld is Editor-in-Chief for French Vogue.  She has
held the position since 2001.  Her father, Jacques Roitfield, who died in 1999, was a Russian film producer who worked in
Berlin before he moved to Paris and met her mother.  She describes her hather as her "idol" and says that he was always
away filiming at Cannes.  Roitfeld describes her mother  as a very classic Frenchwoman.  Carine says her upbringing in the
16th arrondissment of Paris, France was very Bourgeois, very comfortable.  
At 18, Roitfeld began modeling after being scouted on the street in Paris by a British photographer's assistant.  "I wasn't a
star", she says.  "I was just booked for junior magazines".  She became a writer and then a stylist for French ELLE.  While
working as a freelance stylist, her daughter, Julie, was in a children's fashion shoot for Italian Vogue Bambini in 1990,
photographed by Mario Testino.  Roitfeld and Testino soon after began working as a team, doing advertising work as well as
shoots for American and French Vogue.  Roitfeld went on to work as a consultant and muse for Tom Ford at Gucci and Yves
Saint-Laurent for six years.  She was approached by Jonathan Newhouse to edit French Vogue in 2001.
Roitfeld has contributed to the fashion images of Gucci, Missoni, Versace, Yves Saint-Laurent and Calvin Klein.  Roitfeld has
two children; Julia Restoin Roitfeld(born in Paris on November 12, 1986) graduated from The Parsons School of Design in
New York City in May 2006 and became the face of Tom Ford's fragrance Black Orchid in November 1980).  Bladimir Restoin
Roitfeld(born in Paris in December 1980) graduated from the University of Southern California film school in 2007.  Carine and
their father Christian Restoin have been together for thirty years.  Time 2008 named Carine as one of the world's 100 most
influential people.  

Ruching, Rusching:  A fine gathering, often made with fine elastic in the sewing bobbin.

Savage, Percy 1927-2008: Born in Brisbane, Queensland, Percy Savage moved to Sydney to pursue his interest in the arts,
continuing the ballet training he had begun at home by influence of his mother, a ballet dancer herself.  He left Austrailia for
London in 1947 to study fine art, but departed for Paris within two weeks, bored by London's post-war atmosphere.  After
graduating from art school, Savage dabbled in the design of silk scarves at the houses of Balenciaga and Dior.  In the early
days of his career as a PR Maven with
Lanvin, Percy became especially close with the young Dior, who nicknamed him Eau
Savage(which would become the name of a Dior cologne).  In 1954 he met actress Elizabeth Taylor while she was in Paris
promoting a film.  Savage went to Taylor's hotel one evening offering 20
Lanvin gowns for her to choose from to wear to the
film premier.  He arranged an interview for Taylor with a Herald Tribune reported to whom she gushed about the gown
selections.  Afterwards, Percy began encouraging other celebrities and starlets to don designer wear at events to promote
brands and designers.  It began the practice that is now the lifeblood of public relations in fashion.  By literally introducing the
means of promotion to fashion, Percy Savage helped to make it the multi-billion dollar industry that it is today.

Seamstress: Sews ready to wear or mass produced clothing by hand or with a sewing machines, either in a garment shop or
as a sewing operator in a factory.  He or she may or may not have design & cut or model fitting skills.

Seam ripper:  A tool used to undo seams quickly and for opening buttonholes.

Self Fabric: Using the same fabric as the main body of the garment for the trim.

Selvedge, selvage:  The finished lengthwise woven edge that binds the width of a fabric.

Slacks: General name for sports trousers which were first worn by women in the 1920s.

Sling Backs:  A Shoe with an exposed heel, supported by a strap around the heel.  Introduced in the 1920s, sling backs have
been fashionable at some point in every decade.

Snow, Carmel 1887-1961: Magazine editor born Carmel White in Dublin, Ireland.  In the 1890s shortly after her father's
death, Snow's mother moved the family to New York, where she opened a dressmaking business in Manhattan.  After studying
in Brussels and New York, Carmel joined the family business.  In 1921 she became a fashion writer at
VOGUE and two years
later was named fashion editor.  In 1932 she was named editor of American
Vogue but that same year moved to rival
publication
HARPER'S BAZAAR as fashion editor.  Once there, she improved the magazine's editorial content and had great
skill in spotting and promoting talent.  Snow worked with the great art director Alexey
BRODOVITCH and with some of the most
high profile photographers in fashion: Irving
PENN, Martin MUNKACSI and Richard AVEDON.   Following her retirement in
1958, she continued to work as a fashion consultant  in France and Italy.

Spandex:  Man-made fibre with high stretch qualities which was first introduced in 1958 by DU PONT.  Lightweight yet strong,
it is used in swimwear, lingerie and hosiery.

Stylist:  Coordinates the clothes, jewelry, and accessories used in fashion photography and catwalk presentations.  A stylist
may also work with an individual client to design a coordinated wardrobe of garments.  Many stylists are trained in fashion
design.

Sunray Pleats:  Fine pleats which radiate out from a central point on the waistband of a skirt or dress.

Surah:  The original surah, from Surat in India, was a soft, lustrous fabric made from twilled silk.  In the 20th century the name
surah was given to the man-made fibre used in the manufacture of blouses and dresses.

Swatch:  A contraction of 'Swiss' and 'Watch', the Swatch was first produced in 1983 by a Swiss company.  Intended to be
colorful, durable and inexpensive, the ever-changing styles feature a round plastic face and plastic strap.  Some models have
become collectors items and Swatch presents over two hundred new watch designs a year, mainly in their Spring/Summer and
Autumn/ Winter collections.

Tailor:  Makes custom designed garments fitted to the client’s true measure, especially suits(coat and trousers, jacket and
skirt etc).  Tailors usually go through an apprenticeship or other formal training.

Taffeta:  A fine, stiff fabric woven from real or artificial silk, with a glossy, iridescent sheen.  Taffeta is believed to be named
after the Persian fabric 'taftan'.  It has been popular for eveningwear since the 19th century.

Tailleur:  A tailored suit or ensemble which became popular during the second half of the 19th century.

Tent Dress:  Introduced in 1951 by Cristobal BALENCIAGA as a woollen coat which flared from a low-standing collar into a
widening A shape.  Known as the tent, it was used for both dresses and coats.  It was similar to the
A-LINE but usually more
exaggerated.

Textile Designer:  Designs fabric weaves and prints for clothes and furnishings.  Most textile designers are formally trained
as apprentices and in school.

Toggle:  A method of fastening a coat or jacket by looping a piece of cord or braid around a wooden or plastic peg.

Toile:  1)Various simple twill weave fabrics 2) A model or pattern of a garment, made up in muslin for fitting or making copies.

Under-pressing:  Opening seams and pressing garment parts during assembly, giving a better finish to the garment than top
pressing only.

Under-stitching:  A method of stitching down facings and collars to prevent them from rolling out.

Velcro: The name for the (1942) trademarked closure of Swss inventor George de Mestral.  It comes from the French words
velours(velvet) and cochet(hook) and was first used in skiwear.  It is now available in a large number of tape widths and shape
forms but is particularly useful for giving a modern and utility look to childrens clothing, sportswear and shoes.

Vent: Slit or open section in a jacket or coat which gives fullness and width.  It has been used by dressmakers since the 19th
century.

Vogue:  An american magazine started in 1892 as a fashion weekly catering to society women.  In 1909 Vogue was bought by
Condé NAST and became a twice monthly publication in 1910.  British Vogue was added to the American stable in 1916
followed by French, Australian, Spanish and German Vogue.  Spanish Vogue lasted only two years(1918-1920) and German
Vogue only had a few issues printed in 1928.  Vogue was transformed by Mr. Nast from a small weekly paper into the 20th
century's most influential fashion magazine.  Devoted to fashion, society and the arts, it has successfully promoted art,
photography, illustration and literature through its pages.  

Vreeland, Diana 1906-1989 Magazine editor.  Born Diana Dalziel(pronounced Dee-ell) in Paris, France.  Vreeland moved to
New York at age eight at the outbreak of World War I.  In 1937 she went to work at
HARPER's BAZAAR in New York and
became fashion editor in 1939.  Vreeland spent twenty-five years with Harper's Bazaar before leaving in 1962 to work for
VOGUE and becoming associated editor in 1963.  She was shortly appointed editor-in-chief and stayed with Vogue until
1971.  Vreeland was the twentieth century's greatest arbiter of fashion and style.  Her keen eye for talent promoted numerous
designers, models and photographers.  She edited vogue during the 1960s with flamboyance and flair and has been the
influence behind several movie and television characters.  In 1971 Vreeland became consultant to The Costume Institue of
The Metropolitan Museum of New York.   In 1984, she wrote her autobiography.   

Wardrobe Consultant:  Recommends styles and colors that are flattering to the client.

Webbing:  A heavy, narrow ribbon with a twill weave, used for strapping.

Welt:  1) A strip of fabric binding a pocket edge  2) The ribbed edge on knitwear.

Wing seam:  A curved seam line which travels over the shoulder blade or breast.

Working Drawing: A design drawing which shows the construction lines of the garment and is often given to the machinist as
a guide.

Wrap: The overlap of the front edge of a jacket or 'wrapover' skirt.

Yoke:  A shoulder piece on a shirt or jacket or a broad waistband onto which other fabric is gathered.

YOUTHQUAKE:
Was a 1960’s fashion, musical and cultural movement.
The term was coined by Vogue’s editor – in  chief Diana Vreeland in 1963.  London was the center of this movement.  
Teenagers dominated the fashion and music scene.  
The fashion of youthquake was fun, spirited and youthful – miniskirts and jumpsuits.
Model Twiggy was the face of this movement.  Mary Quant and Betsey Johnson were two of the most influential designers of
the youthquake movement.

Zig zag:  A stitch used to bind or finish edges decoratively or where the seam must be allowed to stretch safely.

Zipper: The patented invention of Whitcomb Judson in the United States in 1890.  As a closurure, it is best suited for close-
fitting garments and trousers.  The zipper did not really take off until 1923 and became more popular in the 1960s when nylon
ones could be dyed to match garments.











                                                         
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